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Bosveld is wildwÍreld / Game farming is nature conservation

WAT ELKE WILDPLAASEIENAAR MOET WEET

WHAT EVERY GAME FARM OWNER MUST KNOW

 

Vorige opdatering 2014-03-13 Last update

 

Indien u oor enige interessante feite rakende die wildbedryf beskik wat u met ons wil deel, laat ons weet. Indien u verskil van enige mening op hierdie bladsy, doen dieselfde! If you have any interesting facts about the game farming industry you want to share with us, let us know. If you differ from any opinion on this page, do the same!

 

Inhoudsopgawe:
- Finansiering vir die aankoop van 'n wildplaas (m.a.w.kan u 'n wildplaas bekostig)
- KommersiŽle Wildboerdery & Beroepsjag - lewensvatbaarheid & winsgewendheid
- Markwaardes van wildplase
- Wildplaas Landgoed / Reservaat: voordele & nadele
- Kosteberaming (oprigtingskoste & lopende uitgawes)
- Take op 'n wildplaas (diensbeskrywings)
- Buitelandse kopers
- Suurveld & Soetveld - verskille, voordele & nadele
- Turf - voordele & nadele
- Jag of nie jag nie?
- Plasing van watergate
- Bees vs Wild - Winsgewendheid
- Omsettingstabel: wild > GVE
- Akkuraatheid van 'n wildtelling met 'n helikopter
- Buffels vergeleke met beeste
- Interessante diverse feite
- 2012 Suidelike Afrika Jagters Trofeegids
Index:
- Financing for the purchase of a game farm (in other words can you afford a game farm)
- Commercial Game Farming & Professional Hunting - probability & profitability
- Market values of game farms
- Game Farm Estates: / Reserves advantages & disadvantages
- Costs (starting costs & running costs)
- Jobs on a game farm (job descriptions)
- Foreign buyers
- Sourveldt & Sweetveldt - differences, advantages & disadvantages
- Peat - advantages & disadvantages
- To Hunt or Not to Hunt
- Placement of water holes
- Cattle vs Game - Profitability
- Convertion rate: game > LSU
- Accuracy of a game count with a helicopter
- Buffalo compared to cattle
- Interesting diverse facts
- 2012 Southern Africa Hunter's Trophee Guide

 

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Finansiering
Terug boontoe

Financing
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Lenings
:
Banke leen net 60% van markwaarde van 'n plaas (onthou, die waardasie sluit nie die waarde van losgoed bv wild, meubels, trekkers ens in nie so u moet kontant beskikbaar hou daarvoor) anders sal u moet bykomende sekuriteit verskaf byvoorbeeld 'n ander eiendom waaroor 'n verband geregistreer kan word. Daarbenewens moet u terugbetaalvermoŽ bewys uit 'n ander bron as die plaas (want wildplase is oor die algmeen nie danig winsgewend nie, relatief tot die koopprys). Indien u finansiŽle state of 'n besigheidsplan moet voorlÍ sal u aansoek om finaniering misluk.

Terme: Terme beteken dat die verkoper vir u geld leen in die sin dat u 'n deposito betaal en dat u dan afbetaal aan hom in plaas van 'n bank. Die voordeel hiervan vir die koper is dat verkopers se rentekoerse gewoonlik laer is as 'n bank s'n (prima minus 2%) maar die nadeel is dat verkopers nie lang afbetalingstermyne wil toestaan nie - 3 jaar tot 6 jaar, 10 jaar as jy baie gelukkig is teenoor banke se 20 jaar.

Die Kredietwet maak dit moeilik om 'n plaas op afbetaling te verkoop en die verkoper sal moet registreer as 'n finansiŽle instelling.

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


Loans: Banks only lend 60% of the market value of a farm (please remember that any valuation doesn't include movables like game, furniture, tractors etch - for this you need cash) alternatively you need additional security like other properties over which a bond can be registered. You also have to prove your ability to pay instalments not taking into account the income from the farm (because game farms are generally not very profitable relative to the purchase price). If you need financial statements or a bussiness plan you application for finance shall not succeed.

Terms: Terms mean that seller lends you money in the sense that you pay a deposit and then make payments to him instead of to a bank. The advantage of this for purchaser is that seller's interest rates are normally better than bank's (prime minus 2%)but the disadvantage is that sellers only lend on short terms - 3 years to 6 years, 10 years if you're very lucky, as opposed to bank's 20 years.

Die Credit Act makes it difficult to sell farms by Deed of Sale - the seller has teo register as a financial institution.

Back to the index

 

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KommersiŽle wildboerdery & beroepsjag
Lewensvatbaarheid & Winsgewendheid

Terug boontoe
Commercial game farming & professional hunting
Feasibility & Profitability
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Winsgewendheid van kommersiŽle wildboerdery
:
Omdat wildboerdery glansryk is betree mense dit nie suiwer vir kommersiŽle redes nie maar tot groot mate vir selfbevrediging. Om diť rede is wildplase duurder relatief tot hul opbrengs as produksiebates bv. 'n "boerplaas", fabriek of woonstelblok. Daarom geld dieselfde fiskale beleid nie tot wildboerdery nie: indien u kommersiŽle wildboerdery wil beoefen is ons aanbeveling dat u alles kontant doen maar indien u 'n verband het moet dit nie 20% van die waarde van u wildplaas oorskry nie. Syfers en besigheidsplanne verkoop nie 'n wildplaas nie. Moenie dink u kan 'n wildplaas op skuld koop en die paaiemente terugbetaal uit wildboerdery of jag nie BEHALWE indien u reeds 'n wildboer of beroepsjagter is (want dan weet u wat u doen)! Moenie probeer beleggers werf om 'n wildplaas te koop nie - ek herhaal: syfers en besigheidsplanne verkoop nie 'n wildplaas nie.

Die uitsondering op bogemelde is miskien langtermyn huur binne nasionale parke aangesien mense minder geneig is om groot geld te spandeer op grond waarvan hulle nie eienaar word nie - dus verkoop sulke huurkontrakte vir pryse nader aan kommersiŽle waarde as gewone wildplase (maar moet gladnie dink dis goedkoop nie!).

Teel van duur wild het standaardpraktyk geword op wildplase en is baie winsgewend.

In die Bosveld is wildboerdery meer winsgewend as beesboerdery - lees daaroor elders op hierdie bladsy

 


Baie mense koop 'n wildplaas suiwer vir privaat ontspanning maar indien u belangstel in kommersiŽle wildboerdery - hier's ons aanbevelings. KommersiŽle wildboerdery kan die volgende takke beslaan wat almal gelyktydig be-oefen kan word of u kan in een spesialiseer:

  • Jag: die goedkoopste en maklikste manier om die wildbedryf te betree. As jy 'n geweer en 'n vierwieltrek voertuig het (en natuurlik die beroepsjageksamen geslaag het) kan jy as vryskut beroepsjagter (PH = professional hunter) optree vir 'n jagondernemer. Jy't nie jou eie plaas of eie kliŽnte nodig nie. Hierdie is die intreevlak tot die wildbedryf
  • Klein wildplasie (kleiner as 800 ha):
    a) HoŽvlak toerisme: indien die plaas in, teen of baie naby 'n groot 5 reservaat geleŽ is met vrye toegang tot die reservaat bied dit 'n moontlikheid van hoŽvlaktoerisme. Hierdie tipe plasies is gladnie goedkoop nie!
    b) Laevlak toerisme is moontlik maar kan alleenstaande nie voldoende inkomste lewer om 'n lewe te maak nie. Plaaslike toeriste wat inboek teen 'n billike tarief. Jy onthaal hulle nie. Hulle kook vir hulself & hou hulself besig. Hulle betaal ekstra as jy hulle vat vir wildritte, begeleide staptoere, nagritte of as jy onthaal (cater) ens. Geesboukampe, huweliksonthale ens - alles dra by.
    c) Oornagakkomodasie: indien die plasie naby (maksimum 20 km) vanaf 'n dorp is kan jy dit ook benut as oornagakkomodasie (bed & ontbyt) vir reisigers - dit kan 'n goeie besigheid wees.
    d) Jag: registreer as jagondernemer en gebruik die plasie as oornaggeriewe vir jou eie jagonderneming - jy sal jag op konsessies en jy sal trofeŽdiere aankoop, op jou plasie vrylaat en dit jag. Jy sal vryskut beroepsjagters kry om jou te help. Die grootste uitdaging hier is om jagters te kry - bemarking kos 'n fortuin.
    e) Teel van wild: teel duur wildpesies vir lewende verkope. Selfs op klein plasies moet voorsorg getref word teen verliese weens roofdiere .
  • Gemiddelde grootte wildplaas (800 ha tot 3 000 ha):
    Dieselfde moontlikhede as op 'n klein plasie maar jy sal meer op jou eie plaas kan doen en minder op konsessies hoef te kom maar jy sal steeds baie van konsessies afhanklik wees. Meer kombinasies ook moontlik. Laevlak toerisme raak belangriker hier (hoewel alleenstaande steeds nie winsgewend genoeg om 'n bestaan te maak nie) maar dit kan 'n goeie inkomste wees. Vir teel van wild (duur spesies) bied klein kampies en die voetspore van die boer die nodige beskerming teen roofdiere.
  • Groot wildplaas (3 000 ha tot 10 000 ha):
    a) HoŽvlak toerisme is moontlik maar pasop vir oorkapitalisering. Buitelanders betaal goed maar hulle wil groot 5 sien en hulle wil onthaal & gepamperlang word.
    b) Laevlak toerisme: moenie dit verwerp nie - dit kan 'n goeie inkomste wees.
    c) Oornag-akkomodasie: presies dieselfde beginsel as vir 'n klein plasie - indien die plaas naby genoeg aan 'n dorp is kan jy ook oornag-akkomodasie (bed & ontbyt) bied, wat 'n goeie besigheid kan wees.
    d) Jag: op hierdie grootte plaas is jy feitlik heeltemal onafhanklik. Slegs duur spesies sal jy gaan jag op plekke waar hulle volop & goedkoop is (meestal in die buurstate).
    e) Teel van wild: teel duur wildpesies vir lewende verkope. Klein kampies bied die nodige beskerming teen roofdiere.
  • Massiewe wildplaas (10 000 ha +):
    Hierdie plaas is groot genoeg dat dit as reservaat of wildernis kan kwalifiseer. Die aanbevole minimum grootte vir vrylopende olifante, leeus ens. Al die ander vertakkings van wildboerdery is moontlik.
  • Reservate - privaat wildreservate:
    a) Klein reservate (kleiner as 10 000 ha) is gewoonlik nie geskik of ontwikkel vir kommersialisering nie maar slegs vir die privaatgebruik van eienaars.
    b) Groot reservate (10 000 ha +) is die meeste geskik vir hoŽvlak toerisme. Die grootte van die grond per standplaas en 'n beperking op die aantal kliŽntebeddens en veldvoertuie verhoed oorbevolking. Jag word dikwels gladnie toegelaat nie of op beperkte skaal toegelaat.
  • Reservate - wildtuine (nasionale parke): langtermyn huurkontrakte is beskikbaar binne sommige wildtuine. Hierdie is veral 'n algemene gebruik in Botswana maar deesdae ook in Suid-Afrika. Groot kommersiŽle toerisme moontlikhede word hierdeur ontsluit.

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


Profitability of commercial game farming
:
Game farming is a glamorous business and people enter the game farming industry for more than purely economical reasons - therefore a game farm's income doesn't compare favourable against it's price. You'll make much more money by buying, for instance, another tyupe of farm, factory or block of flats than by game farming. Figures and business plans don't sell a game farm. Therefore we recommend that you do everything cash or that, at best, your mortgage don't exceed 20% of the value of the farm. Don't think you can buy a game farm and make the payments from game farming or hunting UNLESS you're already a game farmer or professional hunter because then you know what you're doing. Don't try to convince investors to invest in a game farm - I repeat: figures and business plans don't sell a game farm.

The exception to above is maybe long term leases in national parks because people as less inclined to invest huge amounts of money into land of which they're not the owner. These leases therefore sell for nearer to commercial value than normal game farms (but don't think it's cheap!).

Breeding of expensive game became standard practise on game farms and is very profitable.

In the Bushveldt game farming is more profitable than cattle farming. Read more about this somewhere else on this page.

 


 

Many people buy game farms purely for private use only but if you're interested in commercial game farming - here's our recommendations. Commercial game farming can consist of various branches that can be combined or you can specialise.

  • Hunting: the cheapest way to enter the game farming industry. If you have a rifle and a four wheel vehicle (and you're a qualified professional hunter {PH}) you can become a free lance PH for hunting outfitters. You don't need a farm or your own hunters. This is the entry level to the game farming industry.
  • Small game farm (less than 800 ha):
    a) High level tourism: if the farm is in, adjacent or near a big 5 reserve with easy access to the reserve opens possibilities of high level tourism. These farms are definitely not cheap!
    b) Low level tourism is possible but on it's own not profitable enough to make a living. Local tourist book in at a reasonable price. You don't entertain them. They cook for themselves & keep themselved busy. They pay extra for game drives, guided tours, night drives, if you cater etch. Company spirit-building courses, weddings etch - all adds up.
    c) Overnight accommodation: if the farm is near a town you can use it as overnight accommodation for travellers (bed & breakfast) - this can be a good business.
    d) Hunting: register as hunting outfitter and use your farm as base camp for hunting safaris. You'll hunt on concessions. You'll also buy trophy animals, release them on your farm & hunt them. You'll get free lance PH's to help you. The biggest challenge is to get hunters - marketing cost a fortune.
    e) Game breeding: breed expensive game. Even on a small game farm precautions must be taken against predators.
  • Average size game farm (800 ha to 3 000 ha):
    The same possibilities as on a small farm but you'll be able to do more on your own farm & less on concessions although you'll still be greatly dependant upon concessions. More aspects of game farming possible. Low level tourism become more important here (although alone standing still not profitable enough to make a living) but it can be a good source of income. When game breeding (expensive species) small breeding camps is the best protection against predators.
  • Big game farm (3 000 ha - 10 000 ha):
    a) High level tourism is possible but beware of over capitalization. Foreign tourists pay well but they want to see big 5 and they want to be entertained & pampered.
    b) Low level tourism: not to be dismissed!  It can be a good source of income.
    c) Overnight accommodation: the same principle as on a small farm - if the farm is near a town you can use it as overnight accommodation for travellers (bed & breakfast) - this can be a good business.
    d) Hunting: on this size farm you're almost completely independent. Only for expensive species you'll go to areas where they're cheap & common (normally neighbouring states).
    e) Game breeding (expensive species):  small breeding camps is the best protection against predators.
  • Gigantic game farm (10 000 ha +):
    This size farm is big enough to qualify as reserve or wilderness. This is the recommended minimum size for free roaming elephant, lion etch. All aspects of game farming possible.
  • Reserves - private game reserves:
    a) Small reserves (smaller than 10 000 ha) are normally not for commercial purposes but only for private use by the owners.
    b) Huge reserves (10 000 ha +) is the best suited for high level tourism. The size of land per stand as well as prescribed maximum amounts of beds & vehicled prevents over population. Hunting is normally not allowed or strictly controlled.
  • Reserves - national parks: long term leases are available in some national parks. This is especially common in Botswana but nowadays also in South Africa. This has huge commercial tourism potential.

Back to the index

 

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Markwaarde van wildplase
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Market value of game farms
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Inleiding:

Introduction:

Wildplaaspryse eskaleer gemiddeld 20% per jaar en dit is dus 'n uitstekende kapitale belegging. Suid-Afrika is nie 'n volgende Zimbabwe nie. Die grondhervormingsproses in Suid-Afrika is wetsgedrewe en word gemonitor deur onafhanklike howe. Ons ministers het herhaaldelik gesÍ dat die grondhervormingproses in Suid-Afrika ordelik sal verloop en onwettigheid sal nie geduld word nie. The value of game farms escalates at an average of 20% per annum and thus it's a very good investment. South Africa is not a next Zimbabwe. The land reform process is a legal process monitored buy independant courts of law. Our ministers repeatedly stated that the land reform process shall be orderly & unlawfull squatting shall not be allowed.
Algemeen: General:

Die waarde van 'n wildplaas word nie, soos met normale plase, bepaal deur sy opbrengspotensiaal nie maar deur vraag en aanbod. So sal plase nader aan die stad met 'n mooi natuurskoon ('n bietjie berg, groot bome, mooi bos & rivier of dam) vÍr van swart gebiede & ontwikkeld (met ander woorde wildheining gespan, bees-instellasies verwyder, netjiese akkomodasie, paaie, wild gevestig) 'n grootter waarde hÍ. Plase geleŽ in of teen 'n groot 5 reservaat is nog meer gesog. Plat plase verder noord se waarde is laer.

The market value of a game farm is not determined, as with other farms, by its profitability potential but by supply & demand. A game farm within 2 hours from the city, nice scenery (a little bit of mountain, nice big trees, beautifull bush & river or dam), far from black settlements & most of the hard work done already (game fenced, cattle installations removed, decent accomodation, roads, game settled) shall have a higher value. Game farms in, near or next to big 5 reserves are also more expensive. Flat farms further up north are less expensive.

Die waarde van 'n wildplaas word bepaal deur: The value of a game farm is determined by:

1. Ligging  vanaf die stad:

Meeste eienaars van wildplase is naweekboere woonagtig in die stede. Afstand vanuit die stede speel derhalwe 'n groot rol. KommersiŽle wildboere ag afstand vanaf 'n internasionale lughawe ook as 'n belangrike faktor.

2.  Swartmense:

Die vraag na 'n wildplaas naby 'n swart woonbuurt of met 'n "swart" probleem, bv. groot getalle arbeiders, 'n grondeis of 'n swart skool, is baie baie laag. Dit gaan oor misdaad, nie rassisme nie.

3.  Ligging vanaf 'n dorp:

Eienaars wat op plase woon verkies die gerief van 'n groterige dorp (Ī 30 km radius) sonder kompromis van stilte, rus, vrede & veiligheid.

4.  Ligging vanaf 'n teerpad:

Die meerderheid kopers beskou 'n teerpad as 'n inbreuk op die stilte. 'n Minderheid beskou dit as 'n toegangsvoordeel.

5.  Natuurskoon:

95% van alle kopers soek na daardie droomplaas . 'n Plaas met bietjie berg of 'n koppie, maar steeds maklik toeganklik, oop water, 'n rivier, stroompie, fontein of mooi groot standhoudende gronddam en groot bome. Met Suid Afrika se relatief plat topografie en min water is hierdie plase in die minderheid en gevolglik uiters gesog.

6.  Grootte:

Aanvanklik is grootte 'n belangrike vereiste vir die meeste kopers maar meestal kompromeer hulle op die ou einde grootte in ruil vir ander voordele ten einde binne hul begroting te bly.

7. Estetieka:

Wildboerdery is 'n glansryke bedryf. Die ideaal is: alle verbeterings moet te alle tye aan die hoogste standaarde van netheid & estetieka voldoen. Jou ingang moet 'n goeie indruk skep. Wildheining moet netjies eenvormig lyk. By die geboue is netheid belangriker as grootte maar klein hokkies is onaanvaarbaar. Yster & plastiek is uit. Alles moet natuurlike materiaal wees: venster- & deurrame moet hout wees, dak moet gras wees, mure kan siersteen of klip wees of 'n natuurlike kleur. Geboue moet die estetieka van die plaas uitlig - naby oop water of met 'n uitsig of onder groot bome. Dis dikwels makliker gesÍ as gedaan want die geboue moet relatief naby infrastruktuur (krag, water & paaie) wees om kostes te beperk. Kraglyne moet ondergronds wees - moet asseblief nie oorhoofse kraglyne op 'n wildplaas bou nie. Probeer met 'n selfoon werk eerder as oorhoofse telefoonlyne of moenie die pad al langs die kraglyn & telefoonlyn gebruik nie. Paaie moet kronkel - sulke lang lynreguit paaie op 'n wildplaas lyk aaklig. Versteek swart behuising & buitegeboue buite sig. Jou pad vanaf die ingang na jou verblyf moenie deur ou lande (behalwe as daar altyd wild rondstaan), verby arbeidersverblyf of enige lelike punte gaan nie. Moet asseblief nie beeste op 'n wildplaas aanhou nie! Baie eienaars hou 'n paar beeste aan ter wille van bosluisbeheer of om gras af te wei vir brandbeheer. Pas tog asseblief ander metodes van bosluis- & brandbeheer toe - om op 'n wildplaas in 'n troppie beeste vas te loop is 'n emmer yswater in jou gesig! Dieselfde geld natuurlik vir perde & donkies. Indien u wťl enige plaasdiere wil aanhou, span 'n aparte deel uit vir dit. Kopers neem asseblief kennis: potensiŽle wildplase is presies die teenoorgestelde. Dit is plase wat tans nog gebruik word vir tradisionele boerdery, meestal beesboerdery. Beesboere beskou dit as 'n voordeel indien 'n nasionale pad deur sy plaas gaan. Infrastruktuur moet goedkoop wees, nie netjies nie. Toegangsroetes gaan gewoonlik eers deur 'n flenter hek, dan verby die lande, dan verby die statte, dan verby die stoor, dan verby die rommelhoop en dan kom jy by 'n huis wat niks anders is nie as stootskraperkos. Veld is dikwels oorbewei en bosindringing in verskillende fases (van plaas tot plaas). Paaie is in 'n toestand. Takke krap jou voertuig, grassade in jou verkoeler. Kort-om, die Bosveld is stukkend geboer! Indien u 'n "onverbeterde" plaas / beesplaas gaan sien, verwag bogemelde. Om so plaas weer op standaard te kry is moontlik maar dit verg tyd, aandag & liefde vir die saak. 'n Mens kan goeie kopies kry tussen beesplase maar u moet die potensiaal van die plaas kan insien en u moet bereid wees om die werk te doen.

8. Toegang:

Ten spyte daarvan dat wildplaaseienaars hoŽ waarde heg aan afgeleŽnheid wil hulle nie die heel naweek op die pad spandeer om op die plaas te kom & terug nie. Baie hekke, tť lang grondpad (30 km+ ?) of 'n swak toegangsroete is 'n nadeel. Beweeglikheid op die plaas rond is ook belangrik.

9. Veldtoestand:

Meeste kopers kyk meer na die infrastruktuur as veldtoestand, maar 'n plaas wat ooglopend verniel is is 'n groot NEE. Bosindringing is die groottste sondaar.

10. Wildplaas Landgoed

Die voordeel van landgoed is sekuriteit, oorhoofse bestuur (watervoorsiening, instandhouding ens) word deur 'n bestuursliggaam behartig teen 'n maandelikse heffing & die groter oppervlak waarop die wild kan rondbeweeg gee meer opsies vir meer & groter spesies -  wild doen oor die algemeen beter hoe groter die oppervlak. Die grondwet van 'n landgoed verseker ook dat jy jou nie vasloop in 'n swak buurman waaroor jy geen beheer het nie.

11. Bestuur

Kopers betaal 'n premie vir 'n plaas wat tydens kontraksluiting onder goeie bestuur is, hetsy deur die eienaar self hetsy deur 'n goeie intelligente hardwerkende bestuurder.

12. Waarom is sommige plase se pryse so buitensporig hoog?

Want sommige eienaars het buitensporige verwagtinge. Normaalweg los ons die eienaar sodat hy self agterkom sy prys is te hoog en dit dan laat sak - as ons vir 'n eienaar sÍ sy prys is buitensporing dink hy meestal ons probeer hom indoen en ons verloor die inisiatief. Eienaars glo dikwels hulle kan buitensporige pryse vir hulle eiendomme kry indien hulle in die buiteland adverteer of op die internet, maar hulle sit die pot mis. Natuurlik kan 'n koper 'n aanbod maak. Uiteindelik verhandel 'n plaas teen markwaarde of bly maar net in die mark sonder om te verkoop.
 

1.  Location from the city:

Most game farmers are weekend farmers living in the city. Distance from their homes is important. Commercial game farmers also consider the distance from an international airport as af great importance.

2.  Black people:

The demand for game farms near black settlements or farms with a "black" problem, like too many workers, a land claim or a black school, is very very low. The problem is crime, not rassism.

3.  Location from a town:

Owners that live on a game farm prefer the luxury of a town nearby (Ī 30 km) without compromising on silence, peace & security.

4.  Location from tar road:

Most purchasers don't want to buy near a noisy tar road. A minority see it as an access advantage.

5.  Scenery:

95% of all purchasers are searching for that dreamfarm. A farm with a hill, kopje or mountain but still accessable, a river, stream or big dam and nice big trees is very sought after. Unfortunitaly South Africa is a relitavely flat & dry country, so these dreamfarms are very expensive.

6.  Size:

Initially purchasers reckon size to be an important factor but mostly they eventually compromise size for other positive factors to stay within their budget.

7.  Estetics:

Game farming is a glamorous industry. The ideal is: all improvements must at all times be of the highest standard & quality. Your entrance must look good. Game fencing must look neat & uniformly. With the buildings quality is of more importance than size but small pigeonholes is unacceptable. Don't use steal & plastic. Use natural material - wooden frames, thached roof, walls face brick or stone or painted a natural colour. Buildings must enhance the estetics of our farm: near open water or with a view or under big trees. This is often easier said than done because the buildings must also be close to the infrastructure (water, electricity, roads) to reduce expenses. Power lines must be underground - please don't use overhead elecrical lines on a game farm. Even telephone lines look bad - try using a cell phone or don't use a road along the telephone & power line. Roads must not be straight - long straight roads on a game farm looks ugly! Hide worker's quartersoutbuildings out of sight. Your entrance road mustn't go through old lands (unless you're guarenteed to see game there), passed workers accomodation, outbuildings or any less estetic points. Please don't keep cattle on a game farm! Some owners keep cattle to control ticks & to control the grass for fire. Don't do it! Use other methods of tick - & fire control. When you move around on a game farm & you bump intocattle it'a a bucket of ice water in your face! The same goes for horses & donkeys. If you want to keep any domestic animal on a game farm use must put aside a portion of the farm just for that. Purchasers please note: potential game farms are exactly the opposite. These farms are currently being used for traditional farming, mostly cattle farming. A cattle farmer views a road right through his farm as an advantage. Infrastructure doesn't have to be neat - it must be cheap. Access roads go through a ragged gate, then passed the lands, then passed worker's accomodation, then passed the outbuildings, then passed the rubbish heap and then you get to a house that's bulldozer fodder. Grazing is often overgrazed and bush encrouchment in various degrees (from farm to farm). Roads are bad - branches scrath your vehicle & grass seeds in you rediator. The Bushveldt has been severely damaged by farming operations. If you're going to view a cattle farm or "undeveloped" farm expect this. You can get beautifull potential game farms at reasonable prices but you have to see the potential and it need lots of "tender loving care".

8.  Access:

Although game farm owners place a high value on remoteness they don't want to spend the whole weekend on the road to & from the farm. Too many gates, too long dirt road (Ī 30+ km?) or a bad access road is considered a disadvantage. Ability to move around on the farm is also important.

9.  Condition of the grazing:

Most purchasers look more at the infrastructure than the condition of grazing but a farm that's clearly overgrazed is a big NO. Bush encrouchment is the biggest problem.

10.  Game Farm Estates

The advantage of estates are security, overall management (water supply, maintainance etch) by a management commitee at a monthly levy & the bigger area for game to roam give options for more & bigger game - game do better in general if they have a bigger area to roam. The constitution of an estate also ensures that you don't have bad neighbours you can't controll.

11. Management

Purchasers pay a premium for a farm that is under good management either by the seller directly or by a good intelligent hardworking manager.

12. Why are some farm prices so exhorbitant?

Because some land owners have exorbitant expectations. We normally leave the owner until he realise by himself that his price is exorbitant and then drops it on his own initiative - if we advise an owner that his price is too high he may think we're trying to put him in and we loose the initiative. Owners often think they can get an exorbitant price by advertising in the abroad or on the internet, but they make a mistake. Obviously a purchaser may make an offer. Eventually the farm sells at market value or just sits on the market.

Opsomming:

Summery:

Twee plase kan reg langs mekaar lÍ, die een kan R3 000 / ha werd wees en die ander R1 000 / ha. 'n Plaas by Rooiberg kan R3 000 / ha werd wees en 'n soortgelyke plaas by Alldays R1 000 / ha. Die markwaarde van wildplase is net so uiteenlopend soos die markwaarde van motorvoertuie of skilderye. Om meer te wete te kom oor wildplaasontwikkeling & wildplaasbestuur koop Wildplaasbestuur deur J du P Bothma.

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe

Two farms right next to be each other can have different market values: the one can be worth R3 000 / ha and the other R1 000 / ha. A farm at Rooiberg can be worth R3 000 / ha & a similar farm at Alldays R1 000 / ha. The market value of game farms are as diverse as the a market value of motor vehicles or paintings. To learn more about game farm development & management buy Game Farm Management by J du P Bothma.

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Landgoed
Terug boontoe

Wat is 'n landgoed?:

Estate
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What is an estate?:

Enige samevoeging van wildplase of standplase in 'n wildplaas word gedefiniŽer as "landgoed" bv. groot reservate soos Timbavati, Sabi Sand, Welgevonden, Mabula asook kleiner reservate bv. 'n 1 000 ha met standplase daarin te koop. Any conglomeration of game farms or stands for sale in a game farm is defined as an "estate" , for instance huge estates like Timbavati, Sabi Sand, Welgevonden, Mabula as well as small estates like any 1 000 ha game farm with stands for sale.
Voordele van landgoed: Advantages of estates:
  • Sekuriteit: 'n landgoed 'n 'n klein "gemeenskappie" en die sekerheidsvoordele is voor die hand liggend. Ook lewer sekere landgoedbesture sekerheidsdienste bv. daaglikse sekerheidspatrollie - ook wanneer u nie op die eiendom is nie. Anti-wilddiefstal patrollies is meer bekostigbaar asook 'n bestuurder & werkers.
  • Biodiversitiet: hoe groter 'n landgoed hoe groter verkeidenheid topografie, plantegroei & wildlewe is moontlik. Slegs groot genoeg reservate kan groot 5 aanhou bv. vrylopend olifante & leeus.
  • Instandhouding & bestuur: meeste landgoed het 'n bestuursliggaam wat wildbestuur toepas & instandhouding van infrastruktuur (paaie, watervoorsiening ens.) behartig - jy't dus die plesier van 'n wildplaas sonder die kopsere daarvan. Jy't goedkoop toegang tot professionele kennis van wildplaasbestuur aangesien sulke mense gewoonlik op die bestuursliggaam is.
  • Kommersialisering: dis goedkoper om kommersiŽle ekotoerisme op die been te bring binne 'n landgoed aangesien 'n toeris, veral op hoŽ vlak, verwag op groot 5 te sien, wat jy nie op klein plasies kan aanhou nie en omdat toeriste eerder oor 'n groot area wil rondry as herhaaldelik oor 'n kleiner area.
  • Bemarking: hoe meer bekend 'n landgoed is hoe meer effektief werk jou bemarking - bv. 'n plaas in die "groter" Krugerwildtuin area (bv. 'n plaas binne Timbavati) trek meer toeriste as 'n plaas in die Tuliblok of 'n privaat wildplaas omdat Kruger meer bekend is. Ook tel die totale grootte van die landgoed in bemarking om dit as "wildernisgebied" te bemark en die hoeveelheid standplase is van sekondÍre belang.
  • Minimum standaarde: jy weet wie's jou buurman. Voorskrifte soos minimum bouvoorskrifte, verbod op geraas ens. waarborg die hoŽ standaard binne die landgoed - jy weet daar gaan nie 'n "maplotter" langs jou kom koop & jou lewe versuur nie.
  • Koste: die heffing is beslis minder as wat instandhouding jou sou gekos het.
  • Security: a estate is a small community & the security advantages is obvious. Certein estates give security services like security patrolls, also when your not there - keeping an eye over your property. Anti-poaching units & a good management & work team are more afordable.
  • Biodiversity: the bigger the estate obviously the more diverse the topography, plant & animal life. Size give access to some big 5 species like free roaming lion & elephant.
  • Maintainance & management: most estates has got a management body who manages the game farming aspect & who do the maintainance of things like roads & water supply giving you all the advantages of a game farm but not the headaches. You have cheap access to professional game farm management because these people are on the management board.
  • Commercialization: It's easier to get a commercial tourist enterprise going in a estate than on a private farm because, especially on high standard, tourists expect to see big 5, which a small farm can't offer them. Also tourist prefer to drive around on a large area rather than round-and -round on a small area.
  • Marketing: the better known a estate is the more effective is your marketing, for instance, a farm in the "greater Kruger Park" area (like a farm inside Timbavati) attract more tourists than a farm in the Tuli Block or a private game farm because Kruger is well known already. Also, the size of the estate forms part of your marketing in order to promote a "wilderness" experience. The amount of stands in the estate is of lesser importance.
  • Minimum standards: you know your neighbour. Minimum standards (like minimum building standards & maximum veldt vehicles)  guarentees the high standards of the estate - you know you're not going to be anoyed by some bad neibour.
  • Costs: the levy is definitely less than what maintainance would've cost you!
Nadele van 'n landgoed: Disadvantages of  estates:
  • Die klag wat ek meestal hoor is die inbreuk op privaatheid - in 'n landgoed met ryregte vir almal, bv. Welgevonden, gaan jy beslis ander mense op die paaie in die landgoed aantref (jou erf is natuurlik absoluut privaat). Baie landgoed het nie ryregte nie en is elke persoon beperk tot sy plaas, bv Timbavati. Hierdie probleem bestaan egter meer op papier as in praktyk - dis uiters selde dat alle eienaars van 'n landgoed gelyktydig daar teenwoordig is en nog seldsamer dat almal gelyktydig besig is om op die paaie rond te ry. Ek was al in landgoed waar ek gevoel het ek is heel alleen daar.

  • Beperkinge - jag is 'n sensitiewe saak in 'n landgoed en 'n bron van groot onenigheid, daarom sal meeste landgoed jag heeltemal verbied. Sommige landgoed gee kwotas uit met eerste keuse aan eienaars en die balans aan 'n goeie beroepsjagters (jag kan jou heffing baie verlaag!). Ander beperkinge bv. kinders word nie toegelaat om "doughnuts" op paaie te trek nie, honde word nie toegelaat nie ens. Goeie maniere en bedagsaamheid is die riglyn.

  • Gevaarlike wild bv. leeus kan jou beweegingsvryheid aan bande lÍ en kinders se plesiere op 'n plaas inperk.

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe

  • The biggest concern is the inroad into privacy - in a estate with traversing rights, like Welgevonden, you're bound to find other people on the road (of cause your stand is completely private). Many estates don't give traversing rights, like Timbavati, & you're bound to your own farm. This is more a proble in paper than in reality - it's very seldom that you'll find all owners in the estate at the same time, and even more seldom they'll all be on the roads at the same time. I've been in estates & got the idea I'm the only person there!
  • Limitations: hunting is a very sensitive issue & potentially a huge cause for dissent, therefore most estates disallow hunting completely. Some estates give hunting quotas with first option to owners & the balance to a reputable professional hunter (hunting can decrease the levy considerably!). Other limitations like children are not allowed to practise their driving skill, no dogs etch. The guideline is good manners.

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Kosteberaming (baie rowwe skatting)
Terug boontoe
Cost analyses (very roughly)
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Kapitale inset

  • Beesplaas aankoop: 50%

  • Wildheining: 10%

  • Wild: 10% (gewone wild, nie "duur wild" nie)

  • Eienaarshuis & gaste herberg insluitend meubels: 20%

  • Sloop onooglike strukture, aanbring van noodsaaklike en estetiese verbetering (bv. damme, paaie, slag- & koelgeriewe, stoor, arbeiderverblyf ens): 5%

  • Aankoop van basiese voertuie (bv veldvoertuig, trekker, sleepwa, skraper): 5%
    +

  • Aankoop van duur wild - 50% van bogemelde. PS: Teel van duur wild het die hooffokus geword op wildplase die afgelope dekade en lewer astronomiese winste en kapitale groei in terme van die eskalasie in waarde van hierdie duur wild. Weens groot skommelings is dit moeilik om voorspellings te maak maar duur wild se waardes kan maklik verdubbel elke jaar. Hoe lank voor die mark gevul is? Na my mening nie voor elke uithoek en kleinhoewe in Suid-Afrika gevul is met hierdie duur wild nie - dus 500 jaar of meer.

Drakrag op 1 000 ha rofweg: rooibok 250, koedoe 50, zebra 10, blouwildebees 20, eland 15, gemsbok 20, waterbok 20, rooihartbees 20, blesbok 20, kameelperd 10. Onthou: kleinwild & roofdiere word ook gejag (vlakvarke deur almal & goed soos steenbok & duiker deur trofeejagters). Oes: 33% van die drakrag per jaar vanaf 3 jaar nŗ vestiging (hou roofdiere in bedwang, veral rooijakkals, rooikat & jagluiperd!). "Duur wild" is skaars wild en kleurvariasies ("smartiewild"). Skaars wild is spesies wat van skaars is in Suid Afrika byvoorbeeld swartwitpens, bastergemsbok, buffel, basterhartbees, njala ensovoorts. Kleurvariasiies is al die kleurvariasies wat ontstaan weens uitsoek en inteling van onderdrukte (resessiewe) gene  - eintlik 'n vorm van veeteelt, byvoorbeeld swart rooibok, goue blouwildebees ensovoorts. Kopers moet versigtig wees vir "kleurvariasies" weens kleursel (wat later afreŽn) en ondervoeding (veral 'n tekort aan mikro-elemente byvoorbeeld boor, koper ensovoorts)!

Basiese inkomste (1 000 ha - jaar 2002)

  • 3 trofeejagters + 1 metgesel p.j, 10 dae verblyf, $300 p.p.p.d. (alles ingesluit): dagfooie $12 000 = R132 000

  • 2 boogjagters + 1 metgeselle p.j, 10 dae  verblyf, $200 p.p.p.d. (alles ingesluit): dagfooie $6 000 = R12 000

  •  trofeŽ gejag (10 rooibok, 5 vlakvark, 15 ander): $20 000 = R220 000

  • verkoop vleis: R20 000

  • 25 biltongjagters + 15 metgeselle p.j, 3 dae verblyf, R200 p.p.p.d. (selfsorg): R24 000

  • wild gejag deur biltongjagters (40 rooibok, 10 koedoe, 15 vlakvark,
         5 ander): R36 000
         of

  • lewende wid verkoop (teen 50% van veilingprys) i.p.v biltongjagters: R26 000

  • buite-seisoen toerisme: 144 beddens p.j. verhuur (10% besetting van 'n 8 bed herberg vir 6 maande) @ R200 p.p.p.d (selfsorg) = R28 800

Basiese lopende uitgawes (1 000 ha - 2002)

  • Arbeid: R28 800 p.j. (R600 p.p.p.m, 4 arbeiders)

  • Krag: R18 000 p.j.

  • Diesel (net op die plaas rond): R6 000 p.j.

  • Voer: R10 000 p.j.

  • Instandhouding & diverse: R36 000 p.j.

  • Bemarkingskoste: R25 000 p.j. (op klein skaal - nie bywoning van jagskoue ens nie)

  • Onthaalkoste (slegs buitelanders): R10 000 p.j.

Opsomming van basiese op 1 000 ha - 2002

  • Koop 1 000 ha wildplaas R3,5m

  • Basiese inkomste R526 800 p.j.

  • Basiese lopende uitgawes R133 800 p.j.

  • Wins kan verder verhoog deur die teel van duur wild bv basterhartbees, swartwitpens, bastergemsbok, buffel, ens

  • Wins kan verder verhoog word deur (met u plaas as basis) jag en toerisme te beoefen op u plaas en op konsessies maar dan is dit nie meer 'n inkomste uit die plaas nie maar uit 'n ander wildverwante besigheid en die plaas lewer 'n persentasie bydrae

  • U kan, soos meeste wildplaaseienaars, dit gebruik as "'n ryk man se speelding!"

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


Capital input

  • Cattle farm purchase: 50%

  • Game fencing: 10%

  • Game: 10% (normal game, not "expensive game")

  • Owner's house & lodge including furniture: 20%

  • Demolish ugly structures, make neccecary & aesthetic improvements like roads, dams, slaughtering- & cooling facilities, store, labourer's quarters etch: 5%

  • Basic farm vehicles, equipment (like bush vehicle, tractor, trailer, scraper): 5%
    +

  • Purchase of expensive game - 50% of the above. PS: Breeding of expensive game became the main focus on game farms the past decade and is yielding astronomical profits and capital gains  in terms of escalation of the prices of the expensive game.. Due to huge fluctuations it's difficult to predict but the value of these game can easily double  every year. How long before the market is flooded? In my opinion - not before every corner and smallholding of South Africa is filled with these game, thus it can take 500 years or more.

Carrying capacity on 1 000 ha roughly: impala 250, kudu 50, zebra 10, bluewildebeest 20, eland 15, gemsbuck 20, waterbuck 20, redhartebeest 20, blesbuck 20, giraffe 10. Remember small game & predators are also hunted - wart hog by everybody, steenbuck, duiker etch by trophee hunters. Harvest: 33% of the carrying capacity from 3 years after settlement (keep predators in check, especially black backed jackal, lynx & cheetah!). "Expensive game" is rare game and colour variations ("Smartie game").Rare game is species that are rare in South Africa like sable, roan, buffalo, tsessebe, nyala etcetera. Colour variations are all these sub colours of species that are created by seeking out recessive colour variations and breeding them intensively, actually a type of stock breeding, like black impala, golden bluewildebeest etcetera. Buyers must be careful of "colour variations" due to colourings  that washes off with rain and "colour variations" due to malnutrition (especially a shortage of mikro elements like borium, copper etcetera).

Basic income (1 000 ha - year 2002)

  • 3 trophee hunters + 1 friend p.a, 10 days stay, $300 p.p.p.d. (all included): accomodation fee $12 000 = R132 000

  • 2 bow hunters + 1 friend p.a, 10 days stay, $200 p.p.p.d. (all included): accomodation fee $6 000 = R66 000

  • trophees taken (10 impala, 5 wart hog, 15 other): $20 000 = R220 000

  • sell meat: R20 000

  • 25 biltong hunters + 15 friends p.a, 3 days stay, R200 p.p.p.d. (self catering): R24 000

  • game taken by biltong hunters (40 impala, 10 kudu, 15 wart hog, 5 other): R36 000
         or

  • live game sold (at 50% of the auction price) instead of biltong hunters: R26 000

  • out of season tourism: 144 beds p.a. let out (10% occupation rate of a 8 bed lodge for 6 months) @ R200 p.p.p.d (self catering) = R28 800

Basic running costs (1 000 ha - 2002)

  • Labour: R28 800 p.a. (R600 p.p.p.m, 4 labourers)

  • Power: R18 000 p.a.

  • Diesel (on the farm only): R6 000 p.a.

  • Fodder: R10 000 p.a.

  • Maintenance & sundries: R36 000 p.j.

  • Marketing costs: R25 000 p.a. (on a small scale - not attending hunting
         shows etch)

  • Entertainment costs (foreigners only): R10 000 p.j.

Summery of basics on 1 000 ha - 2002

  • Buy 1 000 ha game farm R3,5m

  • Basic income R526 800 p.a.

  • Basic running costs R133 800 p.a.

  • Profit can increase with the breeding of expensive game like tsessebe, sable, roan, buffalo etch

  • Improve income from the farm by (using the farm as base) hunting & tourism on your farm and on concessions, but then it's not an income purely from the farm but from a game farm related bussiness and the farm forms a percentage of the bussiness

  • or you can, like most game farm owners, use it purely as "a rich man's toy!"

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Take op 'n wildplaas
Terug boontoe
Job list on a game farm
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Wildboerdery, insluitend jag, is 'n vorm van eko-toerisme. Geskoolde arbeid is meestal noodsaaklik. Baie van die verantwoordelikhede hieronder genoem kan oorvleuel & deur 1 persoon behartig word:

  • Die plaaseienaar kan van die ondergemelde pligte op homself neem.

  • Jag-ondernemer: voorsien die fasiliteite - plaas, akkomodasie, voertuie ens. Dis meestal die plaaseienaar maar dit kan ook wees iemand wat nie 'n plaas het nie - dan huur hy akkomodasie & jagkonsessies.

  • Beoepsjagter (PH): Vergesel die buitelandse jagter in die veld tydens die jagtog. PH kursus noodsaaklik.

  • Plaasbestuurder: werk vir die plaaseienaar & is verantwoordelik vir die instandhouding van die plaas & implimente. Moet 'n "handy-man" wees. Ondervinding, landbouskool en / of landboukollege noodsaaklik. Sy helpers kan ongeskoolde arbeiders wees.

  • Wildbewaarder: ken die natuur, wys interessanthede aan toeriste uit & is verantwoordelik vir toeriste se veiligheid. Kursusse & ervaring noodsaaklik.

  • Kok & skoonmakers (dikwels onder beheer van die plaasbestuurder se vrou): onthaal & is verantwoordelik vir die vroulike deel van die boerdery bv. skoonmaak ens. Ervaring noodsaaklik, kursusse kan vaardighede verhoog.

  • Spotter: sien wild vanaf 'n bewegende voertuig. Ervaring verhoog vaardigheid.

  • Spoorsnyer: vat gekwesde diere se spoor - hoogs gespesialiseerd. Formele opleiding & baie ondervinding.

  • Slagter: slag wild (uitslag van trofee staan bekend as "kuip") & verwerk vleis. Formele opleiding noodsaaklik.

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


Game farming, including hunting, is a form of eco-tourism. Labour requires to be skilled. Many of the responsibilities listed below can overlap, being assumed by 1 person:

  • The farm owner can assume some of the lower responsibilities listed below.

  • Hunting outfitter: provides the facilities - farm, accommodation, vehicles etch. This is mostly the owner of the farm but it can be a person with everything except a farm - then he rents accommodation & hunting concessions.

  • Professional Hunter (PH): accompanies the foreign hunter in the bush during the hunt. PH course essential.

  • Farm manager: works for the owner & is responsible for the maintenance of the farm & implements. Needs to be a "handy-man". Experience, agricultural school or college necessary. His helpers can be unskilled labourers.

  • Game ranger: knows the bush, point out interesting fact about the bush to tourists & assume responsibility for tourist safety. Courses & experience essential.

  • Caterer & cleaners (often the farm manager's wife): shall handle the catering & oversee the female side of the farming like cleaning of the lodge etch. Experience necessary. Skills can be improved through courses.

  • Spotter: spotting game from a moving vehicle. Experience improves skills.

  • Tracker: tracking wounded animals - highly specialized. Formal training & a lot of experience.

  • Skinner: slaughter the game (to preserve the trophee is known as "caping") & process the meat. Formal training essential.

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Foreign buyers
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There's no impediment against foreigners who want to buy a farm in South Africa. You pay, it's your farm, no questions asked. There is a debate about the issue but at the moment this is still the situation. Any future law impeding foreign ownership of land in South-Africa shall not be made retrospective thus foreign owners at that time shall not be affected.

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Suurveld & soetveld
Wat's die verskil?
Terug boontoe

Sweetveldt & sourveldt
What's the difference?
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Suurveld
is gewoonlik growwe sandgrond waarvan die voedingswaarde verlaag deur loging. Suurgras is nie suur nie, maar taaier. Probeer 'n grasblaar breek. Indien dit maklik breek is dit soetgras. Indien dit moeilik breek is dit suurgras. Dit vreet en kou moeiliker en verteer moeiliker. In die somermaande is dit net so voedsaam as soetgras, maar tydens die winter onttrek die voeding na die wortels. Dit is dan raadsaam om byvoeding aan diere te gee (bv wildlekke & soutlekke). Bome is minder vreetbaar. Bosindringing vind nie maklik in suurveld plaas nie (in teenstelling met soetveld) met gevolg dat daar  altyd 'n grasbedekking is en dit nooit oorbewei lyk nie (alhoewel dit nie noodwendig goeie gras is nie). Van nature kom minder wildspesies in suurveld voor maar dit kan meestal hoŽr wildgetalle dra aangesien dit meestal in die hoŽr reŽnvalstreke lÍ. Wild pas goed aan in suurveld maar die wild op suurveld is kleinder van lyf met kleiner trofeŽ alhoewel dit 'n deskundige oog verg om die verkil op te merk. Bosluise is vanweŽ die hoŽr reŽnval 'n groter  probleem as in soetveld. Woestynspesies soos eland & gemsbok neem gevolglik langer om aan te pas. Suurveld is egter baie gewild vanweŽ die waterrykheid en natuurskoon. Die Waterberg is oorwegend suurveld. Meeste kopers is aanvanklik negatief teenoor suurveld maar koop dit tÚg op die ou einde. Gemengde veld is die oorgangs-area vanaf suur- na soetveld (bv Bulgerivier & Rooiberg).
Soetveld kom meestal voor in die minder gewilde dele - die plat droŽ bosveld noord van die Kransberg, noord van die Waterberg & die Laeveld / Krugerwildtuin gebied. Soetveld is baie goeie weiding, maar is minder gewild onder ekotoeriste. Diť tipe veld is meer gewild onder jagters en wildteŽlers. Droogtes kom meer  algemeen voor wat veral die blaarvreters tref en moet daar  dikwels gevoer word gedurende die droogste tyd van die jaar. Suurveld & soetveld - die een is nie swakker of beter nie, dis net versklillend!

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


Sourveldt
is normally sandy soil that doesn't maintain it's nutrition so well. Sour grass is not sour, it's tough & digest more difficult. Try to break a grass leaf. If it breaks easy it's sweet. If it breaks difficult it's sour. In summer it's just as nutritious as sweet grass but in winter the nutrition withdraws into the roots - then it's recommended to give supplementary feeding (game blocks & salt licks). Trees are less edible. Sourveldt mostly looks good because overgrazing doesn't cause so much bush encrouchment (contrary to sweetveldt) & there's almost always grass (not necceceraly good grass). Sourveldt naturally sustain less game species but carry more game numbers because mostly it's located in the higher rainfall areas. Game adapt well to sour veldt although the game is of lower quality (smaller body, smaller trophee although it needs an expert to notice the difference). Ticks is a bigger problem in sourveldt & dryland animals like eland & gemsbuck takes longer to adapt. Sourveldt is very popular & very expensive because it's closer to the cities & it has more natural beauty. Waterberg is predominantly sourveldt. Most purchaser initially say they don't want sourveldt but eventually that's what they buy. You also get mixed veldt - the inbetween area (like Bulgerivier & Rooiberg). Sweetveldt is normally located in the less popular areas - the flat dry bushveldt north of the Kransberg, north of the Waterberg & the Lowveldt / Kruger Natiional Park area. Sweetveldt is good grazing but less popular amongst eco tourists. It's more popular with hunters & game breeders. Droughts are more frequent & the browsers suffer first - then they often have to be fed during the worst time of the year. Sourveld & sweetveldt - no one is better or worse, they're only different!

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Turf - voordele & nadele
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Peat - advantages & disadvantages
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Wat toeganklikheid van turf betref - onthou die Bosveld kry nie so baie reŽn soos die HoŽveld nie so die probleem is heelwat minder as wat jy dink. My eie ondervinding is dat turf na 'n dag-of-drie se sonskyn weer toeganklik is. Waar turf en rooigrond bymekaarkom is gewoonlik goeie ondergrondse water. 'n Gedeelte turf op 'n plaas is 'n voordeel aangesien dit ander flora akkomodeer en ander tye beweibaar is as rooigrond - die rooigrond sal al droog wees dan's die turf nog groen weens die voghoudendheid daarvan. Sekere tye van die jaar kry jy meer wild in die turf en ander tye van die jaar meer in die rooigrond. Daar is sekere spesies wat nie goed doen in turf nie en dis spesies wat goed doen in die Kalahari (sand) byvoorbeeld gemsbok, eland en rooihartbees. Maar sulke spesies sal wel soms in die turf ingaan - waarskynlik wanneer die turf droog is. Bastergemsbokke en swartwitpense nie hou van turf nie so jy moenie jou teelkampies in die turf maak nie. Maar tipiese bosveldwild en woudwild het geen probleem met turf nie byvoorbeeld koedoe, rooibok, sebra, blouwildebees, njala ens. As jou turfkolle in die oop deel van die plaas is sal die wild daar gaan wanneer dit hulle pas en daar wegbly wanneer dit hulle pas. Turf het inderwaarheid 'n hoŽr drakrag as rooigrond - turf se drakrag is 1 ha/gve hoŽr is as rooigrond - m.a.w. as rooigronf 8 ha/gve is dan's turf 7 ha/gve. As die plaas 100% turf is stel dit sekerlik uitdagings.

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Engish translation upon first request

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Jag of nie jag nie?
Waarom jag belangrik is vir natuurbewaring
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To hunt or not to hunt?
Why hunting is important for nature conservation
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Die Afrika Bosveld was wild met net wildspesies aangepas vir oorlewing.

Toe kom die mens met sy plaasdiere. Hierdie plaasdiere was nie aangepas vir die Bosveld nie en het die Bosveld baie beskadig - hulle bewei byvoorbeeld net een planttipe (beeste, bv, leef net van gras & verkies sekere grasspesies) terwyl wild die habitiat volledig benut - koedoe is 'n blaarvreter, rooibok 60% ten gunste van gras, blouwildebees & zebra albei gras maar verskillende soorte & lengtes. Party wildspesies verkies bessies, ander jong lote, ander ouer takkies - dit het oor miljoene jare ontwikkel. Wild benut die hele spektrum van die habitat maar vee oorbenut 1 deel & onderbenut ander. Die kompetisie tussen gras, struike & bome word weggewei & struike & bome kry die oorhand. Brande word geblus & bitter min beheerde brand word uitgevoer (brand is 'n belangrike deel van veldbestuur). Vyande van vee word uitgewis met min agting vir die gevolge - dip het die renostervoŽltjie byna laat uitsterf want hy leef van bosluise (hoewel hy nie die ooraanbod van bosluise op vee kon hanteer nie!) Wild is baie meer bestand teen parasiete. Die mens veroorsaak verdere wanbalanse in 'n poging om wanbalanse wat hy self geskep het reg te stel! Doodmaak van roofdiere het baie onskuldige aasdiere & nuttige diere in die slag laat bly, bv die bakoorvos is gejag omdat hy "lammers vang" maar intussen aas hy waar die rooijakkals gevang het! Die bakoorvos eet miljoene termiete, so nou moet jy teen die termiete optree. Die lys is lank. Een van die groot nadele van vee is die oorbenutting van sekere dele van die habitat & onderbenutting van ander dele wat aanleiding gegee het tot bosindringing. Wild was 'n pes want hy kompeteer met vee vir weiding. Elke boer het jagte geskenk aan vriende, dominee & skole. Jag is 'n baie sterk Suid-Afrikaanse tradisie.

Teen die middel 1970's was wild feitlik uitgroei in die Bosveld - slegs die slimste (rooibok & koedoe) & vinnige telers (vlakvarke) het oorleef. Meeste blouwildebeeste, zebras, elande, kameelperde, groot katte ens was uitgewis of het in klein getalle oorleef en in wildtuine. Vandag is rooibok- & koedoejag tradisie aangesien dit vir verskeie geslagte die enigste wild beskikbaar was! Teen diť tyd was die bos sÚ verdig dat jy skaars kan rondbeweeg op plekke waar die ou mense met perde gery het! Meeste beesplase het aaklige laekoste strukture, slordige beesfasiliteite, wild het verstrengel geraak en 'n aaklige dood gesterf in snaakse "takke" wat nie wil breek nie (beesdrade). Waardevolle habitatte bv vleie, rivierbos ens is vernietig vir maak van lande & wild is voŽlvry verklaar wanneer hulle hierdie "snoepwinkels" besoek het.

En toe, miskien weens vraag & aanbod, het party boere mense laat betaal vir jag. Dit was 'n belangrike wegbeweeg van vernietigende boerderypraktyke. En toe gebeur die onvermydelike: party boere wil wild volhoubaar benut terwyl ander net na die korttermyn kyk. Die goeie boer moet wildheining span om sy wild te beskerm (die grootte van die plase & die ruie bos in ag genome doen dit nie afbreek aan die "etiese jag" beginsel nie). Daar was toe reeds wette in Suid-Afrika: as jy jou plaas wildwerend omhein kry jy basies eiendomsreg op die wild. En siedaar! - wild het 'n ekonomiese waarde. Vandag is wild baie meer harde kontant werd as vee & die meeste bosveldplase is wildwerend omhein. Daar is vandag meer wild op wildplase as in Wildtuine.

Dis totaal onmoontlik om die bosveld geheel en al terug te bring na die oertyd - jy kan tog nie al die mense & strukture verwyder nie. Alle wildplase kan nie vir toerisme gebruik word nie - a) toeriste wil groot 5 sien & wildplase kan nie goed soos olifante & leeus onderhou nie   b) jy kan heelwat voete deur 'n wildernis sit en daarom is plekke soos die Krugerwildtuin & Mala Mala ens so gewild maar wat van die ander 90% van die Bosveld - daar is nie genoeg toeriste nie? Hier is 'n ander roofdier in die plek van die groot katte wat die balans bewerkstellig tussen wildgetalle & weiding - die mens! 'n Geweerskoot is veel genadiger as 'n jag deur 'n leeu of nog erger, wildehond.

As jy nie van jag hou nie moenie jag nie maar asseblief, moenie jag & gewere probeer verbied nie. Ons jag nie om ons ego te streel nie - dis menslike instink om te jag (ja, ons is ook roofdiere) en wanneer jy jag is jou sintuie tien maal meer gespits & gewaar jy dinge wat jy nie gewaar tydens wildbesigtiging nie. 'n Etiese jag is eenvoudig opwindend!

Onderskei asb jagters van skieters - daai tipe wat skiet vanaf 'n bakkie terwyl sy tjom sy Brandy & Coke vashou (ek praat nie van ou & gebreklike mense nie) of die tipe wat by die watergat sit & suip tot die wild inkom en dan BOEM "baie geluk, goeie skoot" - ag nee wat, dis g'n jag nie (let wel - boogjag by die watergat is nie oneties nie - die speelveld is bietjie anders!).

So, wat's die beste - beesboerdery of wildboerdery & jag?

Ter nagedagtenis: diere het geen regte nie en het allermins nie, soos mense, die reg op lewe nie want indien wel sal roofdiere sterf van honger en muskiete het reg op lewe! 'n Mens het wel 'n sekere plig teenoor diere naamlik om diere nie te mishandel nie. Die reg op die voortbestaan van 'n spesie is 'n mensereg, nie 'n dierereg nie - ons nageslag het 'n reg op 'n groen planeet en die voortbestaan van alle spesies.

Dis eintlik maklik om alle jag op privaat wildplase te stop: koop elke wildplaas wat in die mark kom! "Put your money where your mouth is".

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The bushveldt savanah of Africa was wild with only wild beasts adapted to African conditions surviving here.

Then came human settlement & with them their domesticated animals. These domesticated animals were not adapted for African conditions & caused much harm to the bushveldt savanah - they grazed monotonously the same kind of plants (cattle, for instance, live of grass only & have a preference for certain types of grass) whereas game survive on every aspect of fauna - kudu is a browser, impala is 60% in favour of grass, wildebeest & zebra are both grazers but have taste for differrent grass species & lengths of grass etch. Some game eats berries, other young branches, other old branches etch etch - remember this evolved over millions of years. With game the whole spectrum of biodiversity gets utulized whereas with cattle 1 species of grass is overgrazed & others left to overproduce. The competition between grass & shrubs & trees were grazed away giving shrubs and some trees an unfair advantage. Veldt fires are extinguished & almost no organized burning takes place (veldt fires are enourmously important to all biospheres). Enemies of livestock were killed with little care to the consequences - dipping for ticks caused a drastic decline in the number of rhino bird who survives on ticks (but couldn't get to ALL the ticks offered by cattle). Game is naturally more resistant against parasites. Man caused imbalaces by eradicating imbalances he created himself. Killing of predators to protect stock caused many innocent scavangers & non-damaging animals to die in the process, for instance the "bakoorvos" was hunted because he "catch sheep lambs" but in fact only scavanged the leftovers of the blackbacked jackal - the "bakoorvos" eats millions of termites - who can carry away tons of grass, so now you must act against termites. The list is endless. One of the major disadvantages of livestock is their monotonous way of grazing, over-utilizing some aspects of the habitat & giving other aspect of the habitat an unhistorical advantage. In the bushveldt savanah the major disadvantage was bush enchroachment. Game was prosecuted being pest, competing against livestock for grazing. Every farmer has friends & important contacts to treat: bank managers, dominees (priests), charity organizations etch all had the opportunity of free hunting on these lands. Hunting is a very strong South African tradition.

By the mid 1970's game populations has been almost extinquished from the bushvedt savanah - only the cleverest species (impala, kudu) survived & those that reproduce rapidly (wart hog). Most others like bluewidebeest, zebra, redhartbeest, waterbuck, eland, giraffe, the big cats etch were extinguished & survived in small numbers only or in National Parks. Today kudu & impala hunt is almost South African tradition due to the fact that for so many generations it was the only game available. Also, by now the veldt was so encrouched that you could scarcely move around in the bush (older people remember how they moved around on horseback where today you can't properly walk!). Most of these cattle farms had ugly low-cost structures, fenced into (untidy) pastures (quite often game died horribly when they encountered these funny branches that wouldn't brake) & heaps & heaps of scrap lying around (view cattle farms even today & you'll notice). Valuable habitat like enourmous old trees, vley's, riverine forests eth etch was destroyed to plant crops (which caused an open hunt on animals moving into these "candy shops").

Then, maybe due to supply & demand, some farmers stopped to give away game for free but let clients pay to hunt. This was an important swing away from the destructive agricultural practises. Then the inevitable happened: some farmers tried to utilize game populations sustainably while others only cashed in (fences for livestock pastures don't keep game in or out). The good guy had to game fence his farm at high cost to protect his game population (size of the farms together with dense bush not making any inroad into the "fair chase" principle). Long before that in South Africa statutes were in place: if you game fence your farm so game can't escape you practically get ownership of it. And there you are - game has an economical value. Today they're worth much more in hard currency than livestock & most of the farms in South Africa's savanah bushveldt is game fenced. Game populations in game farms now exeed those in National Parks.

It's not practically possible to bring all farms back to their virgin state (remove all humans & structures) - no argument is needed for that. All game farms can't be used for tourism - a) tourists want to see big 5 while game farms are too small to sustain animals like elephant & lion    b) you can put a 1 000 tourists through a reletavely small wilderness area per day & make money so they all go to the well known reserves like Kruger, Mala Mala etch, but what about the 90% of the rest of the savanah bush - there aren't enough tourists? Here man took the place of the big cats, keeping the balance between game numbers & availability of grazing in a less cruel way than the big cats! a Shot by a hunter brings death much quicker than a hunt by a big cat or worse even, the African wild dog.

If you don't like hunting, don't hunt but please don't lobby against hunting. We don't hunt to inflate our ego - it's human instinct to hunt (yes, we're also a predator) and moving in the bush hunting is just different from moving in the bush game viewing. When you hunt your sences are simply in a higher gear - you hear, see, smell more. A hunt under the fair chase principle is simply exciting!

Please distinguish between hunters (jagters) & shooters / killers (skieters) - those type who get onto the back of a bakkie (pick-up) with a glass of brandy & coke in the 1 hand & a rifle in the other, shooting from the back of the vehicle (I do have simpathy for old & disabled hunters however) or those hiding at the waterhole BOOM blowing an animal comming to drink - that's not hunting (please note it's not unethical to bowhunt at a waterhole - the situation is much different).

So, what do you prefer - stock farming or game farming & hunting?

As an afterthought: animals have no rights and the least of all, unlike humans, the right to live otherwise predators shall die of hunger and mosquitos have a right to live! Humans have obligations towards animals i.e. not to mistreat animals. The right of survival of species is a human right, not an animal right - future generations have a right to a green planet & survival of all species.

It's actually easy to stop all hunting on private game ranches: buy every game ranch that comes into the market! "Put your money where your mouth is".

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Privaat wildplase in Suid-Afrika
2001
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Private game farms in South Africa
2001
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- Die wildbedryf het die afgelope 7 jaar gegroei teen gemiddeld 6,75% per jaar
- Die waarde beloop R15,5 miljard
- Die bruto inkomste beloop R823m waarvan R450m deur plaaslike jagters gespandeer is
- CHASA (Konfederasie van Jagtersverenigings van Suid-Afrika) het 20 000 lede
- Daar is 200 000 jagters in Suid-Afrika
Bron: S A Wild & Jag, Junie 2001, bl 9
- 85% van al Afrika se trofeŽ uitvoere kom uit Suid-Afrika

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- The game farming industry grew at an average rate of 6,75% per annum the past 7 years
- The value is R15,5 miljard
- The gross income is R823m of which R450m is from local hunters
- CHASA (Confederation of Hunting Associations of South Africa) has 20 000 members
- There are 200 000 hunters in South Africa
Source: S A Game & Hunt, June 2001, p 9
- 85% of all trophees exported from Africa come from South Africa

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Rapport
15 Julie 2001
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Rapport (newspaper)
15 July 2001
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-Wildplase se oppervlak beslaan 3 maal die oppervlak van alle staatsbewaringsgebiede
-Daar is meer wild in RSA vandag as 100 jaar gelede
-Wildplase se inkomste word gegenereer 80% deur jag, 10% deur verkoop van lewende wild & 10% deur toerisme
-Buitelandse jagters spandeer 20 maal meer geld as die gewone toeris
-Pilansberg Nasionale Park is van die enkele staatsbewaringsgebiede waar jag toegelaat word. Een jagter daar spandeer dieselfde bedrag as 2000 dagbesoekers! Jag is hulle grootste bron van inkomste.
Deur: prof. Wouter van Hoven, Universiteit Pretoria

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-Game farms are 3 times the size of all state conservation areas
-There are more game in RSA today than 100 years ago
-Income of game farms are 80% from hunting, 10% from selling of live game & 10% from tourism
-Foreign hunters spend 20 times the amount of the average tourist
-Pilansberg National Park is one of a few state conservation areas where hunting is allowed. One hunter there spends the same amount as 2000 day visitors! Hunting is their biggest source of income.
By: prof. Wouter van Hoven, Pretoria University

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Watergate
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Water holes
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Besin deeglik oor die plasing van suipings:

Te veel waterpunte sal bosindringing bevorder en die weiding se gehalte verswak. Daarby kos dit onnodig baie geld en verg dit ekstra bestuurstyd. Lank gelede was riviere en panne wild se enigste suipplekke in die bosveldgebiede van Suid-Afrika. Toe vat die gebruik pos om op plase om groot hoeveelhede permanente suipplekke te maak sodat diere nie v
Ír water toe hoef te trek nie. Bosindringing was die gevolg. Wild kan verdeel word in drie groepe: 1) Soorte wat baie afhanklik is van water en nie verder as 5 km van water af wei nie bv rooibokke, vlakvarke, waterbokke ens; 2) Soorte wat minder van water afhanklik is en nie verder as 10 km vanaf water wei  nie bv sebras, wildebeeste, hartbeeste, bastergemsbokke, swartwitpense ens; 3) Soorte wat nie baie van water afhanklik is nie en verder as 10 km van water af wei bv gemsbokke, elande ens. Meeste wildplase het  nie meer as een suipplek nodig nie, selfs plase so groot soos 10 000 ha. Ter wille van habitatverskeidenheid is die beste plasing van wildsuiping op 'n wildplaas is 'n enkele suiping vir die hele plaas naby een grens.

En nou is u baie verbaas, nÍ?

Erkenning: Hierdie is 'n verkorte weergawe van 'n artikel wat verskyn het in Landbouweekblad van 15 September 2006 op bladsy 30. Die artikel is geskryf deur Charl van Rooyen nŠ konsultasie met mnr Roger Collinson, hoofbestuurder van Lapalala Wildernis, 'n 36 000 ha privaat wildreservaat in die Waterberg, noord van Mabatlane (Vaalwater).

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


Think carefully about the placement of waterholes
:
Too many waterholes on a game farm causes bush encrouchment and a decrease in the quality of the grazing. It also cost extra money and management time. Long ago rivers and pans were the only waterholes for wild animals in South Africa. Then man built many watering holes so animals don't have to walk far to find water. Bush encroachment was the effect. Game can be classified into three groups: 1) Species that are very dependant on water and don't graze more than 5 km away from water like impala, wart hog, waterbuck etch; 2) Species that are less dependant on water and graze not further than 10 km from water like zebras, wildebeest, hartebeest, roan, sable etch; 3) Species not very dependant on water that graze more than 10 km from water like gemsbuck, eland etch. MOst game farms don't need more than one drinking spot, even farms as big as 10 000 ha. In the interest of habitat diversity the best placement of a water hole on a game farm is a single water hole on the side of the farm.

Why do you look so surprised?

Acknowledgement: This is a shortened version of an article that appeared in Landbouweekblad of 15 September 2006 on page 30. The article was written by Charl van Rooyen after consultation with mr Roger Collinson, manager of Lapalala Wilderness, a 36 000 ha private game reserve in the Waterberg, north from Mabatlane (Vaalwater).

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Bees vs Wild - Winsgewendheid
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Cattle vs Game - profitability
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Die volgende artikel het verskyn in die S A Wild & Jag van 2006-12 bl 42. Die skrywers het 'n deeglike wetenskaplike studie gemaak oor die winsgewendheid van beesboerdery teenoor wildboerdery op 'n plaas naby Kimberley. "Wildboerdery", vir hulle studie, het beteken die teel en verkoop van lewende wild vir veilings en jag maar nie akkomodasie  nie (die jagregte word uitgekontrakteer aan jagondernemers).

Ek haal slegs die laaste paragraaf (Opsomming) aan: "Dit is dus duidelik dat wildboerdery in die Noord-Kaap meer winsgewend kan wees as beesboerdery. Die studie toon dat, ten einde vir 'n wildplaas om meer winsgewend te wees as 'n beesplaas, ekotoerisme nie in-ag-genome, is 'n wesenlike kapitale inset nodig is. Dis slegs moontlik indien die boer die kapitaal beskikbaar het of 'n ander bron van inkomste het wat die wildboerdery kan subsideer vir 5 jaar."

Let wel: die studie is gedoen rakende "gewone" wild en meld dat indien "duur" wild ook ingebring word die winsgewendheid drasties verhoog.

Die skrywers: Flippie Cloete - cloetepc.sci@mail.uovs.ac.za ; 015-401-9367; 083-272-0871 en Pieter Taljaart - pieter-sci@mail.uovs.ac.za ; 015-401-3220; 083-284-4461.

NB: Lees die volledige navorsing hieroor deur Absa Bank - kliek hier

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T
he following article appeared in the S A Game & Hunt of 2006-12 from page 42. The authors made a decent scientific study of the profitibility of game farming versus cattle farming on a farm near Kimberley (Northern Cape Province). "Game farming", for the study, meant breeding of game for live sales at auctions and hunting but not accommodation (hunting concessions are contracted out to outfitters).

I quote the only last paragraph (Conclusion): "It is evident that game ranching in the Northern Cape Province can be more profitable than cattle farming. The results discussed show that in order for a game ranch to be more profitable than a cattle farm, taking ecotourism out of consideration, a significant amoutn of additional capital is required. This is only feasible, however, if the rancher has additional investment capital available and/or if there is another source of revenue that can subsidise the operating costs for the first 5 years."

NB: The study was regarding "ordinary" game only and showed that game ranching's profitability can be increased drastically if "expensive" game becomes involved.

The authors: Flippie Cloete - cloetepc.sci@mail.uovs.ac.za ; 015-401-9367; 083-272-0871 and Pieter Taljaart - pieter-sci@mail.uovs.ac.za ; 015-401-3220; 083-284-4461.

NB: Read the complete research about this by Absa Bank - click here

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Omsettingstabel: wild > GVE (grootvee-eenheid)
Convertion rate: game > LSU (large stock unit)

Spesie

1.00

Blesbuck / Blesbok

0.22

Buffalo / Buffel

1.07

Bushbuck / Bosbok

0.13

Eland

1.00

Gemsbok / Gemsbuck

0.56

Giraffe / Kameelperd

1.58

Redhartebeest / Rooihartbees

0.37

Hippopotamus / Seekoei

2.24

Impala / Rooibok

0.19

Kudu / Koedoe

0.54

Ostrich / Volstruis

0.39

Reedbuck / Rietbok

0.25

Black Rhinoceros / Swartrenoster

1.65

White Rhinoceros / Witrenoster

2.75

Roan antelope / Bastergemsbok

0.64

Sable antelope / Swartwitpens

0.60

Springbuck / Springbok

0.15

Warthog / Vlakvark

0.25

Waterbuck / Waterbok

0.50

Bluewildebeest & White tailed gnu (blackwildebeest) / Blouwildebees & Swartwildebees

0.50

Zebra (Burchell)

0.66

 

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Akkuraatheid van 'n wildtelling met 'n helikopter
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Accuracy of a game count with a helicopter
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'n Wildtelling met 'n helikopter is die mees praktiese manier om wild te tel by die koop / verkoop van 'n wildplaas. Staan regop & kyk af na 'n klomp werkende miere. Dis min-of-meer hoe dit voel om wild te tel uit 'n helikopter. Indien die werkende miere op 'n oop stuk grond is of tussen gras is - dis min-of-meer die verskil tussen 'n wildtelling in die winter en in die somer (in die Bosveld).

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A game count with a helicopter is the most practical way of counting game when purchasing a game farm.
Stand upright & look down upon a group of working ants - that's more-ot-less what it is like to do a game count with a helicopter. Whether the working ants are on an open piece of ground or in a piece of ground overgrown with grass - that's more-or-less the difference between a game count from a helicopter in winter or in summer (in the Bushveldt).

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Buffels vergeleke met beeste
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Buffalo compared to cattle
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'n Gevallestudie
het getoon dat, in hierdie spesifieke geval, dit meer winsgewend is om met 36 buffels te boer as met 400 beeste. Kliek hier om die volledige verslag te sien.

Terug na die inhoudsopgawe


a Case study showed that, in this case, it's more profitable to breed with 36 buffalo than with 400 cattle. To see the complete study, click here (Afrikaans only).

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Trofeegids / Trophy Guide 2012

Bron: S A Wild & Jag, Januarie 2013 bladsy 28
Source: S A Game & Hunt January 2013 page 28

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